Some of the more common disorders that affect the testes include the following:
Testicular trauma or physical injury
Unlike other body organs, testicles are not protected by muscle or bone and are therefore vulnerable to impact and injury.
The spermatic cord, which secures the testicles at either end, gets twisted around a testicle, cutting off the testicle's blood supply. Symptoms of testicular torsion include sudden and severe pain, enlargement of the affected testicle, tenderness, and swelling.
This is a medical emergency, and if the blood supply to the testicles is cut off for an extended period of time, the testicle can become permanently damaged and correction of the problem may be through surgical removal of the testicle.
A rare type of testicular trauma, called testicular rupture, occurs when the testicle receives a direct impact or is squeezed against the hard surface of the pelvis. This injury can cause blood to leak into the scrotum. In severe cases, surgery to repair the rupture and save the testicle may be necessary.
Testicular cancer can develop in one or both testicles in men or young boys. Symptoms of testicular cancer may include a lump, irregularity or enlargement in either testicle; a pulling sensation or feeling of unusual heaviness in the scrotum; a dull ache in the groin or lower abdomen; and pain or discomfort (which may come and go) in a testicle or the scrotum.(1)
Surgery is the most common treatment for testicular cancer and involves removing one or both testicles.
Undescended testicle (cryptorchidism)
This is a condition in which the testicles do not descend from the abdomen, where they are located during development before birth, to the scrotum. This condition is a major risk factor for testicular cancer. (2)